University of Wisconsin - Stout

Journal of Student Research
Fifth Edition, 2006   (Note: viewing links requires free Adobe Reader )

Responsibility: Where Does Generation Y Stand?
Nathan Beranek and Mary Butler

Keywords: Responsibility, generation Y, childhood

Society perceives Generation Y as being irresponsible. This study investigated the attitudes of Generation Y towards the development of responsibility in childhood by surveying 20 male and female college students at the University of Wisconsin-Stout. It was hypothesized that parents and schools had the greatest impact on the development of responsibility in childhood. Survey data was statistically analyzed using frequencies and a reliability analysis. Results indicate that other factors such as birth order, teachers, and other activities were just as influential as parents in the development of responsibility. The implications of our findings are that family professionals need to become aware of the effects of other activities, in addition to schools and parents, in the development of responsibility in childhood. It is also important for members of Generation Y to become aware of their own attitudes towards their responsibility development in childhood to help remove the negative labels society has placed on them.

Advised by Dr. Susan M.Wolfgram

Iris Recognition: A General Overview
Jesse Horst

Keywords: Iris recognition, iris uniqueness, wavelets, statistical independence, Hamming distance, iris recognition applications

This article reviewed the literature regarding iris recognition. The process of iris recognition is discussed in the context of the mathematical principles that underlie this procedure. Possible applications for iris recognition are explored.

Advised by Dr. Joy Becker

Molecular Analysis of Grasshopper Populations to aid in Prairie Restoration Efforts
Brady Hurtgen and Levi Stodola

Keywords: Prairie restoration, red-legged grasshoppers, Melanoplus femurrubrum, molecular analyses

Although the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources and nongovernment organizations have invested heavily in prairie restoration over the past decade, little effort had been made to evaluate whether insect species that inhabit these projects are also restored to pre-settlement diversity. To evaluate the effect of prairie restoration attempts on insect species diversity, eighty individual red-legged grasshoppers, Melanoplus femurrubrum (DeGeer), were collected from 7 populations in 3 relic and 4 restored grasslands. Molecular analyses were designed to obtain gene sequence data by polymerase chain reactions (PCR) amplification and sequencing the mitochondrial genes cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and cytochrome B (cytB). Sixty eight M. femurrubrum sequences obtained for COI and fifty seven cytochrome b sequences were aligned and compared. These data may ultimately be used to improve the management of relic and restored grasslands.

Advised by Dr. Charles R. Bomar and Dr. Steven C. Nold

Functional Foods: A Comparison of Blueberry Muffin Ingredients
Kerrie L. Kaspar and Sandra Majoni

Keywords: Functional foods, soymilk, flaxseed

Functional foods have increasingly gained attention regarding their ability to reduce the onset of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease. The objectives of this study were the following: 1) to evaluate blueberry muffins for protein, lipid, ash, moisture, and carbohydrate content differences when incorporating traditional ingredients compared to soymilk and flaxseed, and 2) to determine through sensory evaluation if untrained panelists could detect a difference among those blueberry muffins. Four muffins were prepared (control, soymilk, flaxseed, and soymilk/flaxseed) using a blueberry muffin mix. Sensory evaluation was performed by 107 untrained panelists among four different muffin batches. Sensory panelists were asked to rate the appearance, blueberry muffin flavor, sweetness, and the overall impression of each product on a 1 to 5 Hedonic scale rating, using 1 for dislike extremely and 5 for like extremely. Statistical analyses were determined using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) at p<0.05. Quantitative measurements indicated that soymilk muffins had a higher moisture (34.0%) and protein (6.42%) content, flaxseed and soymilk muffins had a higher level of ash (1.65%) and lower lipid content of 10.7%. Sensory evaluation concluded that there was no significant difference for the appearance, blueberry muffin flavor, sweetness, or the overall impression among the four different muffin types. Soymilk muffin was rated highest in appearance (3.87) and blueberry muffin flavor (3.51). Compared to the other muffins types, flaxseed muffins were rated highest in moistness (4.02). This study showed that functional foods can be incorporated into traditional food products with no discernable loss in appearance, flavor, or sweetness and the additional soy protein and minerals may assist in the prevention of the onset of chronic diseases.

Advised by Dr. Cynthia Rohrer

The Effects of Over-Scheduled Children: Perspectives of Childcare Workers
Erin M. Kringen and Amanda K. Nagel

Keywords: Over-scheduled children, stress, day care providers

This study used survey research to gather the University of Wisconsin-Stout Child and Family Study Center (CFSC) childcare workers’ perspectives regarding the effects of over- scheduling children in Menomonie,Wisconsin.The participants in this study were eight individuals who were undergraduate students or had completed their undergraduate education and six individuals who were graduate students or who had completed their graduate education. The computer program Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to statistically analyze the data by use of frequencies, cross-tabulations,and mean comparisons. Our findings indicate that childcare workers do not perceive children as being over-scheduled. Another finding was that there might have been a gap in the education on over-scheduled children for the staff of the CFSC. Future research could include duplicating this same survey in a larger and more diverse population with childcare workers and teachers.

Advised by Dr. Susan M.Wolfgram

Jessica Bamman

Society has an obligation to acknowledge social injustice in order to motivate action. In my drawings, I subtly portray domestic abuse showing how the action affects the victim’s psychological state. Through the process of drawing, I attempt to represent the history, the cycle of repetition, not only as a form of physical abuse, but also as a pattern of emotional abuse. My investigation is based on humanistic empathy and an interest in the potential of art therapy; specifically I am interested in art as a means for communication for those who are not able to speak. Psychological trauma can potentially become a consistent source of paint throughout life, and always leaves a mark upon the unconscious; I approached my materials and method of working for this series with a parallel kind of history. In my drawings, the memory of marks relates to the longevity of suffering in the individual. Working with the delicate nature of watercolor, every mark that is produced is permanent, resulting in the conflict between damage and beauty. Working with beet juice, pastels, and watercolor I composed an aesthetically pleasing surface that contributes to the tension created by the offensive subject. Although the work’s subject matter is uncomfortable, I approached the process, however, with consideration for presenting imagery that would be universal, and that would connect to a general audience. This allows me to approach the figural representation as structure. I work from photographs in the genre of family portraits. Specifically, the wife taking an image of father and daughter, a traditional display of family pride and joy. Selection of the father and daughter imagery is acknowledgement of the biological fact, that man was created from woman. In my drawings, I use the photograph as a vantage point to reveal the husband’s abuse upon the mother through his own children. The mother’s passivity, whether conscious or unconscious, takes on the disturbing role of enabler. The mother’s denial or acceptance of abuse, symbolized through taking the photograph, represents the connection between physical and psychological damage produced from the abuse on the mother and that the child witnesses. My work serves to promote social awareness. My hope is that these drawings reduce the acceptance of the act of violence, increase the probability of intervention, and promote physical and psychological healing to those who suffer.

Advised by Amy Fichter

Variety Series 2005
Valerie Kasinskas

“A skilled crafts person can be described as someone who has mastered the coordination of the motions of his or her hands with the efficient operation of tools. In the practice of the arts, however, we recognize that it is not dexterous manipulative skills alone that produce masterpieces that move our spirit; only by the joint alchemy of mind, imagination, and skill do materials become transmitted into significant works.”
—Oppi Untracht

The hand and the mind can work in tandem, but they can be challenged independently of one another. I see the hand being the structure and the mind being variety. Those two words describe my work: structure and variety. The excitement that wells up in me is spurred by them options and possibilities of the mind and hand. I have worked into a semi intuitive method of constructing metal pieces, whether they are sculptures or the body or not. A strong understanding of materials and foundational skills is a must in order to move to another level of working that challenges the brain, then the hand. This is creating a mental space conducive to letting things intuitively happen, yet still maintaining an outlined foundation to function on. My work is dominated by structure and variety. The structure is constructed metal forms from sterling silver or steel. The variety is other materials utilized that meaningfully enter my life. The structure is sturdy and strong while the material that is suspended within the structure is delicate, organic, and of a different nature than the metal. I use the structural component as principle in my work. Here it speaks of physical strength and support; it is durable and wearable. The physical nature also links to larger themes dealing with a different type of reality than physical concepts of organization like reason and society. The creation of jewelry is as old as human beings themselves. I am inspired by the legacy of the highly creative individuals that have come before, and that are thriving all around us today. I see my placement in the History of Art and Metalsmithing as similar to the concept that my work is based on: structure and variety. It is grounding and inspiring at the same time.

Advised by Ronald H.Verdon

Blow Out, Flight, Untitled
Emily A.Walley

My work emphasizes the futile ritualistic acts that are extracted from everyday circumstances. The rituals are based on simplistic actions exaggerated to extremes. Reconfiguring and presenting the act of popping a balloon or tying a string transforms the trite and everyday into an immense challenge. Through observation and mimicry, I research the many facets of a desired image. I intend to eventually reach a point at which the inherent inanimate quality of the object ceases and a relationship develops. My goal is to provoke a transformation within both the object and myself, displaying the individual’s longing to be both creator and destroyer. The transformation I seek is comparable to the universal strive to emulate an image which the individual cannot possibly become or understand. Our failure to achieve inevitably causes further insecurities. I am intrigued by the commonality of failure; the lack of success has the power to bestow both disappointment and possibilities. The absurdities of my performances reflect the same irrational behavior individuals conduct on a regular basis. In my work, I find that the battle between the opposing force and myself quickly becomes a clash between three. The mind generates a doubling of my own body or existence; a sense of duality within the self. I prefer to think of my alter ego as a part of me that has already achieved the desired image. A super-heroine, or one with super-human ability, that may defeat both my artificially created opponent and the self. However, because these fictional characters are fabricated images created by the human mind, they are perhaps as flawed as ourselves. In reality, the skewed persona we desire may be as mentally, physically, sexually and socially inept as each and every one of us. I often utilize myself in my artwork, because I find that it emphasizes both the narcissistic and submissive qualities of the concept. I intend my work to display the endless humor, absurdity, humiliation and eventually failure of the individual. I allow the viewer to laugh at me, therefore enabling them to find humor in themselves.

Advised by Lars Jerlach

Analysis of the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change
James A. Lenio

Keywords: Transtheoretical Model, Behavior change, Stages of change model, Behavior theory, Self change, Health behavior

The focus of this paper is on the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change (TTM).A description of the model, the applications toward modifying health behavior, and the model’s criticisms will all be examined. Through research of published literature, the paper concludes that the model does in fact seem to support health behavior change and shows potential for effective, appropriate intervention. More research is necessary in the area of measurement validity, criteria consistency, and application over unique populations to make the model more widely accepted.

Advised by Dr. Louis C. Milanesi

Do Men Deserve More Credit? A Study on Gender and Caregiving
Kayla Midthun and Colleen Preimesberger

Keywords: willingness, care, gender, college attitudes, financial support, personal hygiene, housework, socialization

Care for the elderly population in the United States is fast becoming an issue many families are facing. This study investigated the relationship between gender and willingness of college students to care for aging parents by surveying 24 male and female undergraduate and graduate students at the University of Wisconsin-Stout. It was hypothesized that female college students would be more willing than men to care for aging parents in the assistance categories of personal hygiene and housework. Survey data was statistically analyzed using cross-tabulations, and mean comparisons. Results indicated that males are more willing to provide care in the categories of personal hygiene and housework. These findings did not support the hypothesis of females being more willing to provide care; the implications are that the traditional roles and stereotypes need to be reassessed.

Advised by Dr. Susan M.Wolfgram

Investigation of Chemical and Physical Properties of Southwestern Wisconsin Maple Syrup
Hiroyuki Takano

Keywords: Maple Syrup, Chemical Properties, Physical Properties, Grading System, Seasonal Effects, Filtration

Maple syrup is produced in the early spring from February through April when maple sap runs from the maple trees. It is traditionally known that the maple syrup produced from the sap in the later season tends to have a darker color. Interestingly, although the maple syrup grading system in the United States gives lower grades and values for darker maple syrup, some consumers prefer dark syrup to light syrup. Therefore, the seasonal variation of important maple syrup parameters was investigated. The other aspect of this study was to determine whether the filtration process in maple syrup production removes some nutritional value from the product. In this research, filtered and unfiltered samples, prepared weekly during the five-week season, were compared with respect to their physical and chemical properties. It was found that the concentrations of calcium, iron, fructose and glucose tended to be higher, while sucrose tended to be lower as the season progressed. The filtration process did not seem to be a significant factor in influencing the concentrations of minerals and sugars.

Advised by Dr. Martin G. Ondrus

Principles of Peer Interviewing
Raschel Rask & Laura Smith

Keywords: Peer Interviewing, Organizational Fit, Organizational Culture, Behavior-Based Interviewing, Employee Relations, Hiring, Selection

Peer interviewing is a process for hiring employees that utilizes the people within the organization to gain a more complete idea of a candidate’s appropriateness for a position. The advantages and disadvantages of this approach are discussed and follow up procedures are provided to assist organizations with employee retention and satisfaction.The approach is presented as an option for managers and supervisors to use as a tool to facilitate better hiring practices and also as a way to encourage employee commitment to theorganization.

Advised by Dr. Katherine W. Lui