Gender Differences in Memory and Self-Esteem for Advertising Amanda K. Hendrickson, Psychology & Annie E. Slauson, Psychology

This study examined gender differences in the effect of viewing same-gender spokespeople in advertisements. This looked at self-esteem and memory for the advertisement. The first group of males and females viewed five advertisements, in which the products were promoted by gender-specific, ideal-looking spokespeople. A second group viewed five advertisements, in which the products were promoted by gender-specific, average-looking spokespeople. The third group viewed five advertisements for products not promoted by spokespeople. After viewing the advertisements, all subjects completed questionnaires that assessed demographics, self-comparison, memory for the product and model, and self-esteem. The results indicate that brief exposure to advertisements does not significantly affect self-esteem. Also, having same-gender ideal spokespeople in advertisements negatively impacts memory for the product in males.

Keywords: Advertisements, Exposure, Memory, Products, Self-Comparison, Self-Esteem, Self-Reference, Average Spokesperson, Ideal Spokesperson

Advised by Dr. Desiree L. Budd 13

Building Better Paper Thad Fisher, Packaging

Ordinary paper is quickly becoming obsolete as technology and competition from other countries continue to take market share away from traditional high volume paper producers. Paper mills will be forced to change with the times or become extinct. One way to keep up with technology in these volatile markets would be to use pulp additives to produce a high quality paper in low volumes rather than huge volumes of standard low value paper. The packaging industry has already begun to demand higher quality, easier to use, sheets of paper and paperboard. It is only a matter of time before specialty paper becomes the norm and pulp additives become the answer for any paper mill looking to break into new production markets.

Keywords: Packaging, Pulp, Additives, Paper, Properties, Porosity, Strength, Clarity, Materials, Chemicals

Advised by Dr. Claire K. Sand 21



A Family Impact Analysis of Covenant Marriage in Minnesota Holly Miller, Human Development and Family Studies

In the following report, I will evaluate the development, implementation, results, and implications of covenant marriage using the six principles of the family impact analysis method of research. Covenant marriage first came about in Louisiana in 1997 and Arizona shortly thereafter. The policy was reviewed by 19 other states, including Minnesota. As a policy, covenant marriage is an alternative to the traditional form of a marriage license. Education and counseling is available in times of serious marital distress. The policy makes it more difficult to divorce, only allowing it under specific criteria. Family impact analysis is a research method that uses six principles to analyze and describe the consequences, both intended and unintended, that a policy will have on families.

Keywords: Covenant Marriage, Divorce Law, Marriage Law, Marriage, Divorc e , Family Formation, No-Fault Divorce, Premarital Education, Marriage License

Advised by Dr. Denise A. Skinner 29

E-Beam Sterilizes the Industry Chris Boyd, Packaging Engineering

E-beam sterilization is a relatively new method used for medical device packaging. There are significant cost savings, timesavings, and environmental effects. It is considered a superior process, compared to other sterilization methods now that packaging materials have become compatible with e-beam sterilization.

Keywords: Sterilization, Irradiation, Electron Beam, E-Beam, Phosphorescent, Gamma, Ethylene Oxide, Medical Device Packaging, Cross-Linking

Advised by Dr. Claire K. Sand 39


Retracting from Traditional Needles Travis J. Mueller, Packaging

Retractable syringes were developed to help fight against accidental needle sticks that occur in hospitals and medical centers worldwide. The development of a syringe that automatically retracts just after use puts the person performing the injection (or draw) in less harm of sticking themselves with the spend needle. Protecting the person performing the procedure from the possibility of being infected with tainted blood would be the major advantage of safer syringes. There are four key advantages to implementing systems and procedures that call for the use of safety or retractable syringes. First, the lowered risk of accidentally being stuck. Second, the cost advantages hospitals find in not having to pay for lost wages, treatment, and/or surgery to persons stuck. Third, new laws and regulations are beginning to require the use of these devices. Finally, users find savings in training and disposal associated with safety syringes.

Keywords: Retractable, Syringe, Needle, Safety, Cost Savings, Laws, Regulations, Disposal, Training

Advised by Dr. Claire K. Sand 45


Plastic Sandwich Nate Engebos, Packaging Engineering

This article covers the benefits of co-injection molding and specifically the Twinshot‚ co-injection system. This system was developed by Twinshot Technologies‚ and is a system that can be retrofitted to conventional injection molding machines. The process uses a single barrel to inject two materials simultaneously into a mold. The co-injection system uses off spec, regrind, or recycled material as core filler and then y encapsulates the core with a virgin material. That results in a huge savings on material costs. Since the system can be fitted to an injection machine, there is no need to make floor space or sell old machines. Using the Twinshot system, a molder could possibly save up to $42,000 per year on material costs alone. Also, the system is significantly less expensive than other conventional co-injection systems, thus reducing overhead costs.

Keywords: Co-Injection, Sandwich Molding, Twinshot Technologies, Joel Thompson, Multi-Material Molding, Single Barrel, Retro-fitted, Fountain Flow, Co-Injection Molding

Advised by Dr. Claire K. Sand 55



How to Use Color in Food Packaging Rob Kaszubowski, Packaging Engineering

In society today, there is a continuous revolution in the purchase decisions of consumer food products. With competition among food manufacturers so close, packaging professionals must find a way to gain an edge for their company. Color can be the key to give them an advantage. By performing basic research regarding the target demographic group, packaging professionals can use color to sway the consumer’s buying decision. However, it is important to remember that colors do not possess the same meanings in every culture. By failing to research these aspects, companies can end up with a product failure that will brand them for years to come. By performing basic color research, packaging professionals will keep their customers continuously coming back.

Keywords: Characteristic Color, Demographics, Lifestyle Groups, Color Forward Group, Color Prudent Group, Color Loyal Group, Color Effects, Color Changes

Advised by Dr. Claire K. Sand 61


Use as Directed Travis J. Strom, Packaging Engineering

Labeling and packaging, especially unit-dose packaging, can help patients with compliance. Hospitals reported a 70 percent decrease in errors when their pharmacies switched to bar-coded, unit-dose packaging. Most medication errors are associated with poor product packaging design, and changes to regulations are forcing engineers to re-evaluate their packaging. In June 1995, the

U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) voted unanimously to issue a final rule modifying the child-resistant packaging test protocols of the Poison Prevention Packaging Act of 1970. When the CPSC revised its protocol requiring that drug packages be senior friendly as well as child resistant, blister package designers were faced with a challenge. Examples of newer unit-dose packaging include the Dosepak and Surepak from the Mead Westvaco Corporation. The use of unit-dose packaging is rapidly expanding in the United States. The projected growth of both blisters and unit-dose packaging shows a wider industry acceptance of the packaging design and the willingness to protect children while not compromising ease of use. If drugs were to be placed in unit-dose packaging, patients would have a daily reminder and record of their regimens. The key to increased awareness is to convince patients, practitioners, and buyers the value of unit-dose packaging. With these new advances in material and packaging designs, unit-dose packaging will continue to grow in the medical market.

Keywords: Unit-Dose Packaging, Self-Medication, Tear-Resistant, Child-Resistant, Senior-Friendly, Calendar Packaging, Blister Packaging, Protocol

Advised by Dr. Claire Sand 67



Choosing the Ideal Integrity Test Michael Grindle, Packaging Engineering

It is essential for packagers to understand the importance of medical package integrity testing. Packagers must also understand how the growth in medical packaging is placing high demands on companies to produce safe and effective products. Understanding the various factors involved with choosing an appropriate test method will aid the packager in making the right decision. In the end, it will provide assurance of how a package/product will perform in real life situations.

Keywords: Package Integrity, Product Sterility, Non-Porous, Co-Extrusions, Laminates, Destructive Test, Non-Destructive Test

Advised by Dr. Claire Sand 77

Patent Pending Amy Baumann, Packaging Engineering

This paper gives evidence to support the claims that there are three major problems with patented packaging. The problems with patented packaging include: trade-dress disappears after the patent expires, words do not exist to describe if a patent is novel or non-obvious, and the incentive to invent is diminishing. Evidence that trade-dress disappears after the patent expires is demonstrated in several court cases. The problem associated with patents is that words do not exist to describe whether the invention is novel. Finally, the last problem discussed in the paper is the diminishing incentive to invent. Litigation costs are outrageously high and continue to increase, and the rights given to the patentee are no better than the right of the accused infringer.

Keywords: Trade-Dress, Patented Packaging, Design Patent, Utility Patent, The Patent Act, The 1946 Lanham Act

Advised by Dr. Claire Sand 85



Tapping India’s Rural Market Sara Huhmann, Packaging

Rural India is a market that has gained the interest of multinational companies, particularly because of its population base of approximately 700 million people. Many attempts have been made at entering the rural Indian market, but most have resulted in disappointment or total failure due to several factors. The most important factor is that the rural Indian market is largely composed of consumers with very little disposable income. In addition, these consumers often have product and package needs that differ from most other markets. Multinational corporations seeking to enter the rural Indian market are faced with the challenges of aligning themselves with Indian industry as well as a fragmented distribution network. By analyzing each of these factors and learning from them, products and packages can be designed to successfully meet the needs of the rural Indian market.

Keywords: India, Rural Market, Emerging Markets, Packaging, Multinational, Corporations, Rural Consumers, Distribution Networks, and Consumer Needs

Advised by Dr. Claire Sand 93

Expel, Pink Truck, and Rodents/Iconclasts Amanda Dobbratz, Art and Design

Advised by Dr. Charles Lume 101

Journal of Student Research